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Immune System

Immune system functions:
  1. It protects the body from the invasion of the disease-causing
  2. Destroying eliminate microorganisms or foreign substances (bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses, as well as the tumor) that enter the body
  3. Eliminate tissues or cells that die or damaged (cell debris) for tissue repair.
  4. identify and remove abnormal cells
main goal:
  1. Bacterial pathogens
  2. Virus
  3. antigen
Implementing
  • Leukocyte is immune cells main (in addition to plasma cells, macrophages, and mast cells)
pathogens for the human body
  1. bacteria
  2. Viruses
  3. Fungi
  4. Protozoa celled
  5. parasite
Structure Structure of immune
  1. organs of the immune system are located throughout ® body parts lymphoid organ
  2. lymphoid organs: a 'home' for lymphocytes:
primary lymphoid Network
  1. the thymus gland
  2. bone marrow
secondary lymphoid Network:
  1. encapsulated: the spleen and lymph nodes
  2. encapsulated ill: tonsil, GALT(gut-associated lymphoid tissue),gland.limfoid in leather , respiratory, urinary, and reproductive
Lymphoid network
  • is a network that produce, store, and process lymphocytes
  • Includes: bone marrow, glandulla limfoid, spleen, thymus, tonsils, adenoids, appendix, and aggregate in digest ( GALT =gut-associated lymphoid tissue/ Plaque Peyer)
immune system
  • Defense first layer: Defense(physical barrier)
  • perthanan layer to the two
  • Defence specifik
There are two immune system:
  1. The immune system is non-specific (acquired)(innate immune system)
  2. immune system specific ( Learning / adaptive)(learned/ adaptive immune system)
barrier cells epithelial
  • cells epithelial whole is a physical barrier to microbes from the environment and produce peptides that function as antibodies naturally.
  • In the epithelial barrier there are also T lymphocytes and B, but diversity lower T and B lymphocytes than on the specific immune system,
  • intra-epithelial lymphocytes T cells will produce cytokines, activate the phagocytosis and subsequently lyse microorganisms.
  • While intra-epithelial lymphocytes of B cells will produce IG M.

Neutrophils and Macrophages
  • When there are microbes in the body, the first component that works are neutrophyls and macrophages
  • Both namely neutrophyls and macrophages did ingestion and destruction of microbes.


this is because macrophages and neutrophils have receptors on their surface which could
  1. Recognizing materials intra cellular (DNA)
  2. Recognizing endo toxin antigen
  3. Recognizing lipo poly saccharide antigen or microbes which in turn activates the activity of antimicrobial and cytokine secretion.


Phase response immune
  1. Detection and recognize foreign objects
  2. Communication dg other cells to respond
  3. recruitment assistance and coordination of responses
  4. destruction or suppression invation Þ antibody and cytokine
responses immune halved
  1. response of the innate immune nonspecific
  2. response of the immune specific


response Immun natural non specific
  1. present at birth
  2. ill have specific targets
  3. occur within a few minutes or hours of
  4. reaction inflammatory


immune response Specification
  1. specific to certain types of
  2. response to exposure first occurs in a few days
  3. subsequent exposure more quickly
Defence body against antigens
  1. of defense Lapis First
  2. Defence Lapis Second
  3. Defence Lapis Third


defense First often called the defense Non specific
  1. skin and mucous membranes intact
  2. sweat glands, sebum, and tears ® secreting chemicals and are bakterisid
  3. mucus, cilia,tight junctions,desmosomes, keratin cells and lysozime in the epithelial layer of
  4. hair pd nostril
  5. normal flora
Immune System Non-specific
  • to detecting the presence of foreign objects and protect the body from damage caused, but insolubility recognize foreign substances that enter the body.
What is included in a system of this:
  1. inflammatory reaction / inflammation
  2. Protein antiviral (interferon)
  3. cells natural killer(NK)
  4. complement system

inflammation / inflammation
  • is the response of the local body of an eye infection or injury
  • Not specific to microbial infection, but the response to the same is true of injury due to cold temperatures, heat, or trauma
  • main character: phagocytes, al: neutrophyls, monocytes, and macrophages
Phase inflammatory
  • entry of bacteria into network
  • Vasodilation systems infected with ®meningkatkan area microcirculation blood flow(rubor/ redness & CALOR /heat)
  • capillary permeability and venul infected towards increased protein ® protein diffusion and filtration to interstitial(TUMOR/ puffiness & dolor /pain)
  • the release of neutrophils and monocytes of interstitial capillaries and venules to the
  • destruction of the bacteria in tissue ® phagocytosis (systemic responses fever)
  • Improved network


interferon
  • virus-infected cells would secrete interferon
  • interferons interfere with virus replication (antiviral); 'interfere'
  • Interferon also slowed division and tumor cell growth with increasing potential of NK cells and cytotoxic T cells (anticancer)
  • The role of interferon the others: increased phagocytic activity of macrophages and stimulates the production of antibodies
NaturalKiller(NK)
  • Destructive cells infected with viruses and cancer cells by lysing the cell membrane pd exposure to I
  • Works = cytotoxic T-cells, ttp faster, non-specific
  • work prior cytotoxic T cells mnjd more and serves
System the complement
system is activated by:
  • exposure to carbohydrate chains imaginable outwardly microorganisms that cut no pd cell human
  • exposure to the antibodies produced specifically for foreign substances specified by the system adaptive immune
  • working as 'complement' of the working antibody
complement that is activated will:
  • Binds dg basophyls and mast cells and induces the release of histamine ® inflammatory reactions
  • play a role as chemostactic factors that increase phagocytosis
  • Binds dg surface bacteria and works as opsonin (opsonitation) ® phagocytosis
  • Sticking pd membrane and form tubular structures that perforate cell membranes and cause cell lysis.


immune System Specification
  • Or the immune system can adaptively destroy pathogens that escaped the immune system is non-specific.
immune System specific Covers :
  1. immune humoral: production of antibodies by B lymphocytes (plasma cells)
  2. cellular immunity: production of T lymphocytes which are activated must be able to distinguish foreign cells that must be destroyed from cell-self antigen (large molecules, complex, and unique that triggers an immune response specific if it enters the body)


Immune System Humoral
  • Antigen (Ag) stimulate B cells turn into plasma cells that produce antibodies ( Ab).


  • Ab secreted into the blood or lymph location of the plasma cells which activated


  • all the Ab will reach the blood Þ gamma globulin = immunoglobulin (Ig)


immunoglobulin (Ig)
There are five classes:
  1. Ig M: acts as a cell surface receptor B & secreted pd early stage plasma cell response
  2. Ig G: Ig largest in the blood, are produced when the body responds thd same antigen, Ig M and IgG role if tjd invasion of bacteria and viruses as well as complement activation
  3. Ig E: protect the body against parasitic infections and is mediation of allergic reactions; the release of histamine from basophyls and mast cells
  4. Ig A: found pd secretion of digestive system, respiratory, and urinary (inc pd tears & ASI)
  5. Ig D: found in many of the B cell surface; recognize antigens pd B-cell


Immune System Cell
T lymphocytes specific for immunity against viral infections and setting pd immune mechanisms.
T cells need direct contact dg goals
There are three sub populations of T cells:
  1. cytotoxic T cell
  2. helper T cell
  3. suppressor T cells
Major histo compatibility complex( MHC):
  • The human leukocyte-associated antigens(HLA) that are bound outwardly cell membrane
  • MHC is typical pd each individual


surveillance immune: cooperation cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, macrophages, and interferon


Formation Immunity Long-term(long-term immunity)
  • On first contact dg microbial antigens
  • antibody response occurred later than in a few day to form plasma cells and will peak in a few week (response primer)
  • From the response will form a memory cell
  • If contact occurs dg antigen same, because the memory cell, the response is happening mjd faster (secondary response)
Impaired immune system
  • Lack of response(immunodeficiency) example: AIDS, leukemia
  • Incorrect response(eds. autoimmune) example: type I diabetes, myasthenia gravis,multiple sclerosis;Graves' disease,
  • overactive response(allergy / hypersensitivity) example : asthma,rhinitis allergic, transfusion


Defense System Body
It protects the body from the invasion of the disease IMMUNE SYSTEM
Three kinds of white blood cells that play a role in the immune response, namely:
  1. B lymphocytes, called B cells because they are manufactured in the bone marrow (bone marrow),
  2. T lymphocytes, called T cells because they are manufactured in the thymus gland, and
  3. macrophages.

the working mechanism of antibody
  1. B lymphocytes play a role in the synthesis of antibodies.
  2. These antibodies can be secreted or remain bound to the membrane on the surface of B cells, depending on the conditions.
  3. During the humoral immune response, the antibodies bind to antigens which are then ingested (swallowed ) and degraded (broken / damaged) by macrophages
  4. T lymphocytes have more responses in immune cells.
  5. T cells synthesize receptors that recognize antigens on the cell surface and trigger lysis of cells containing antigen earlier.


RETAINING BIOLOGY / Floral body
  • bacteria lactic acid bacteria that produce lactic acid.
  • Some of the lactic acid bacteria are a group of probiotics that provide benefits for human health.
the role of lactic acid bacteria against immunity humans are as follows:
  1. Increase the humoral immune response
  2. Increase cellular response
  3. Increase the production of cytokines
  4. Increase nonspecific immunity
Increase humoral immune response
  • lactic acid bacteria (probiotics) will enhance the humoral immune response.
  • Research shows that cells that produce IgA less in experimental animals were compared with probiotics.
  • There are an increasing number of IgA-producing cells in the group of mice who received L. Casei.
  • Increased secretion of IgA sufficient to prevent the gastrointestinal tract.
  • the provision of Lactobacillus can increase the production of immune system IgA locally and increase the production of IgA secreted into Lymen intestinal provides mucosal defense against Salmonella typhimurium.
  • this indicates the function of Lactobacillus as imuno adjuvant and only Lactobacillus who live alone can stimulate a response antibodies against specific antigens local and systemic.


increases cellular responses
  • probiotic Lactobacillus GG has the ability from improve intestinal mucosal immunity, which is an increase in the number of cells producing mainly IgA and other immunoglobulin-producing cells,
  • stimulates the release of interferon local that facilitate transport and increase the antigen uptake by antigen Payer` s patches.
increase production of cytokines
  • Streptococcus thermophilus which is commercially available in yogurt increase the production of cytokines TNF and IL-6 by macrophage cells.
increases nonspecific immunity
  • existence of the ability to produce lactic acid, lactic acid bacteria were able to increase the effect of phagocytosis against pathogens.
  • the role of nonspecific other than bacteria lactic acid is able to reduce hypersensitivity reactions to cow's milk.
  • in addition to a role in the human immune system, the lactic acid bacteria contained in yogurt are also able to overcome the problem of lactose intolerance.
  • the lactic acid produced will increase the activity of the enzyme lactase small intestine


SOLVED pROBLEM


pROBLEM

1. The HIV virus can be transmitted through. , , .
A. urine, semen, sweat
b. sweat, physical contact, blood
c. semen, blood, sweat
d. vaginal secretions, urine, saliva
e. vaginal fluids, blood, sperm


2. Molecules produced by microorganisms that are recognized by the immune system are called. , .
A. toxins
b.serum.
c  antibody
d.antigen.
e complement


3. Statement relating to the immune system of the following are true, except. , .
A. Immunity is regulated by the central nervous system.
B. The air is inhaled through the nose can carry germs.
C. Antibodies are not always able to disable incoming viruses.
D. Immunisation is a way of actively acquiring immunity.
E. Along with the increase of HIV infection, the immune system decreases.


4. AIDS due to the reduced number of certain cells in the immune system, ie. , , .
A. se-T
b. B-cells
c. NK cells (natural vessels)
d. hemoglobin
e.antigen.


5  Which of the following statements is true?
A. Specific antibodies able to recognize a few germs.
B. The HIV virus can attack all cells in the human body.
C. Antibodies specific work for a particular antigen.
D. Macrophages only be in a particular organ.
E. Germs can only be killed by the macrophages.


6. Autoimmunity is dangerous because ....
a. Lymphocyte cells do not react to antigens
b. phagocytic cells attack the body's cells
c. lymphocyte cells damaged by viruses or bacteria
d. lymphocyte cells can not produce antibodies
e. cell lymphocytes attack the body's cells


7. HIV is very dangerous and can cause death due to ....
a. can damage body tissues
b. attack lymphocytes
c. can be transmitted through contact with body fluids
d. lowered immunity so as to facilitate the infection of other diseases
e. damage the body's antibodies


8. In autoimmunity ....
a. lymphocyte cells attacked by the virus
b. the immune system can not distinguish the body's cells and pathogens
c. lymphocyte cells attack pathogens
d. the immune system is formed after infection
e. the immune system can not recognize microbial pathogens


9. On AIDS, the cells that are attacked by HIV virus is ....
a.nerves.
b  muscle
c. epithelium
d. lymphocytes
e. Red blood


10. Immune obtained from the injection of attenuated bacteria called ....
a. natural active immunity
b.artificial active
C. immunity.immune base
d.passive
E immunity.all answers are correct


11. Immunization against measles or polio included ....
a. natural active immunity
b.artificial active
C immunity.Passive immunity
d.external body's
E defenses.internal antioxidant defense


12. Increase in body temperature during a fever aim ....
a. accelerate the proliferation of bacteria
b. accelerate metabolism
c. accelerate the work of phagocytic cells
d. answer b and c
e. answers a, b, and c


13. Fever is too high because of bodily harm ....
a. metabolism too fast
b. debilitating viruses and bacteria
c. phagocytic cells weaken
d.nerve tissue
edamage.muscle cell


14.The immune system destroys humoral work ....
a. pathogens in the cell body
b. pathogens outside the body cells
c. antigen outside the cell body
d. answer b and c
e. answers a, b, and c


15. Lymphocytes formed from ....
a. mast cells (mast cells)
b. white blood cells
c. red blood cells
d. monocytes
e. neutrofil cell


16. Macrophages are derived from white blood cells types ....
a.lymphocytes.
b  basophils
c. neutrophils
d. monocytes
e. eosinofil


17. Molecules that are recognized lymphocytes as foreign substances and trigger the immune system is called ....
a. interleukin
b.antibody.
c  immunoglobulin
d.antigen.
e  histamine


18. When the antigen mixed with serum containing antibodies that happens is ....
a. not happen
b.antigen antibody
crefused.antibodies bind to the antigen
d. incompatible with serum antigen
e. Separate antibody from serum


19. Injecting antibodies produced by other organisms into the patient's body, is a form of immunity ....
a. active
b. passive
c. body
d.cells.
e  intracellular


20. Most of immunoglobulin produced by the body belongs to a class ....
a. IgM and Ig G
b. IgA and IgG
c. IgM and IgG
d. IgD and IgA
e. IgM and IgD


21. B lymphocyte cells matured in ....
a. thymus gland
b.bone
C. brain
d. lymph node
e. Blood


22. B cells and T cells is ....
a.lymphocytes.
b killer
c.phagocytes
d.macrophages.
e red blood


23cells.In an allergic reaction, IgE ....
a. attached to the cell pathogens and mark them for later overpowered
b. make a hole in the cell membrane of pathogenic
c. binds to the surface of mast cells, and induction to produce histamine
d. trigger lymphocytes to produce antigen
e. triggers the secretion of antibodies into the digestive tract and respiratory tract


24. The following are included defense on the body surface is ....
a. skin and mucous membranes
b. tears and saliva
c. the body's normal bacterial flora
d. urine
e. all answers are correct


25. The bacteria that enter the body destroyed by ....
a. IgA
b.helper T
C.Antibiotics
d. Phagocytes
e. Histamine


26. The second layer of the body's defense is ....
a.circulatory
B lymphatic
C respiratory
D integument
E digest system


27. Mature lymphocytes in the bone marrow is ....
a. Lymphocyte T
b. B lymphocytes
c. Lymphocytes E
d. Lymphocytes M
e. Lymphocytes D


28. Molecules that activate B lymphocytes to bind antigen is ....
a. immunoglobulin
b. interleukin
c. antibody
d. antihistamines
c. interferon


29. In the event of allergies, substance secreted mast cells is ....
a.antibodies.
b immunoglobulin.
c  antihistamines
d.antibody.


30  Immunity arising due to the emergence of immune stimulation in the body called ....
a. passive immunity
b. immunization
c. active immunity
d.vaccination.
e  immunity


31. Immunoglobulins which play a role in allergic events is ....
a. Ig E
b. Ig M
c. Ig A
d. Ig G
e. Ig D


32. If the body is attacked by bacterial pneumonia, the immunoglobulin whose role is ....
a. Ig A and Ig M
b. Ig M and Ig E
c. Ig G and Ig A
d. Ig M and Ig G
e. Ig A and Ig E


33. Foreign objects that enter the body are called ....
a.gene.
b  histamine
c. antigen
d.infection.
e  allergies


34. Antibody protein is called ....
a. immunoglobulin
b.antigen.
c  histamine
d. Lymph
e. plasma


35. Immunoglobulin is the first to be produced in the event of the humoral immune response is ....
a. Ig A
b. Ig M
c. Ig D
d. Ig E
e. Ig G


36. Antibodies produced by ....
a. T lymphocytes
b. B lymphocytes
c. mast cells
d.lymph
E. macrophages


37. T lymphocytes become activated after being on ....
a. bone marrow
b. thymus
c. lymph glands
d. blood vessels
e. network


38. Molecules that play a role in the immune response imunoral is ....
a. histamine
b. antihistamines
c. mast cells
d.lymph
e.macrophages


39. The following are included in the components of the immune system, except ....
a. macrophages
b. lymphocytes
c. cell antigen recognition
d. cell receptors
e. allergen


40. In the case of immunodeficiency,people who suffered damage. , , .
A. monocyte
B. lymphocytes
C. B cells
D. T cells
E. B cells and T cells


41. The body's ability to fight against all kinds of foreign objects that enter the body are called ....
A.allergies.
b immunity.
c  vaccination
d.immunization.
e  infection


42. You certainly never given DPT vaccination that is not infected. , , .
A. TB disease
B. diphtheria
C. cholera and dysentery
D. diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus
E. dysentery, pertussis and tetanus


43. Vaccination is done orally, including vaccination. , , .
A. BCG
B. Smallpox
C. Polio
D. DPT
E.anthrax.


44  Babies will have immunity is transferred from mother to child through breast milk. Such immunizations are categorized as. , , .
A. Active immunization
B. Passive immunization
C. Natural immunization
D. Natural active immunization
E. Passive immunization natural


45. If bitten by a dog, get to the doctor to get immunity against rabies. Your doctor will give you a shot. , , .
A. horse serum
B. dog serum
C. bovine serum
D. horse antibody
E. Dogantibody.


46  Here are the terms associated with immunity.
1. Macrophages  
2. B Cells
3. T cells
4. Betalysin
5. Lysozom
6. Interferon
7. Kupffer cells
8  microglial cells
A smoker with a cigarette conscious put poison into his lungs. Though he had threatened the power of the lungs that rely immunity. , , as the destroyer of poison cigarettes.
A. 1
B. 4
C. 6
D. 7
E. 8


47. Here are the terms associated with immunity.
1. Macrophages  
2. B Cells
3. T cells
4. Betalysin
5. Lysozom
6. Interferon
7. Kupffer cells
8  microglial cells
Bodyhave the privilege, even when doing infectious virus into the cell. Body immediately formed substances that are beneficial for the body's defenses. The substance is. , , .
A. 8
B. 7
C. 6
D. 5
E. 4


48. Here are the terms associated with immunity.
1. Macrophages  
2. B Cells
3. T cells
4. Betalysin
5. Lysozom
6. Interferon
7. Kupffer cells
8  microglial cells
Many bacteria become pathogens when doing sporulation. The body will react to this threat by producing. , , .
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5


48. The process of release of the virus from the infected cells by damaging the cell wall is called. , , .
A. ectoplasm
b. exocytosis
c. plasmolysis
d. lysis
e. replication


50. Immunization reactions when viruses or bacteria infect the body, namely the reaction between. , , .
A. Antibodies - Immunoglobulins
B. Antibodies - Antigen
C. Antigen - immunogen
D. Lymphocytes - Virus
E. Leukocytes - Bacteria


TRANSLATE


SISTEM IMMUN


Fungsi:
  1. Melindungi badan dari invasi penyebab penyakit
  2. Menghancurkan menghilangkan mikroorganisme atau substansi asing (bakteri, parasit, jamur, dan virus, serta tumor) yang masuk ke dalam tubuh
  3. Menghilangkan jaringan atau sel yg mati atau rusak (debris sel) untuk perbaikan jaringan.
  4. Mengenali dan menghilangkan sel yang abnormal
Sasaran utama:
  1. Bakteri patogen
  2. Virus
  3. Antigen
Pelaksana
  • Leukosit merupakan sel imun utama (disamping sel plasma, makrofag, & sel mast)
Patogen bagi badan manusia
  1. Bakteri
  2. Virus
  3. Jamur
  4. Protozoa bersel satu
  5. Parasit
Struktur Struktur Imun
  1. Organ sistem imun berada di seluruh belahan badan ® organ limfoid
  2. Organ limfoid: ‘rumah’ bagi limfosit
Jaringan limfoid primer:
  1. kelenjar thymus
  2. sumsum tulang
Jaringan limfoid sekunder:
  1. berkapsul: limpa & kelenjar limfa
  2. tdk berkapsul: tonsil, GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue), jar.limfoid di kulit, sal.napas, kemih, & reproduksi
Jaringan Limfoid
  • Merupakan jaringan yang memproduksi, menyimpan, & memproses limfosit
  • Mencakup: sumsum tulang, kel.limfe, limpa, thymus, tonsil, adenoid, appendiks, & agregat jar.limf di sal.cerna (GALT= gut-associated lymphoid tissue/ Plak Peyer)
Sistem Imun
  • Pertahanan lapis pertama: Pertahanan fisik (physical barrier)
  • Perthanan Lapis ke dua
  • Pertahan specifik
Ada 2 sistem kekebalan tubuh:
  1. Sistem kekebalan nonspesifik (didapat) (innate immune system)
  2. Sistem kekebalan spesifik (dipelajari/adaptif) (learned/adaptive immune system)
Barier Sel Epitel
  • Sel epitel yang utuh merupakan barier fisik terhadap mikroba dari lingkungan dan menghasilkan peptida yang berfungsi sebagai antibodi natural.
  • Didalam sel epitel barier juga terdapat sel limfosit T dan B, tetapi diversitasnya lebih rendah daripada limfosit T dan B pada sistem imun spesifik.
  • Sel T limfosit intra epitel akan menghasilkan sitokin, mengaktifkan fagositosis dan selanjutnya melisiskan mikroorganisme.
  • Sedangkan sel B limfosit intra epitel akan menghasilkan IG M.


Neutrofil dan Makrofag
  • Ketika terdapat mikroba dalam tubuh, komponen pertama yang bekerja ialah neutrofil dan makrofag
  • Keduanya yaitu Neutrofil dan Makrofag melaksanakan ingesti dan penghancuran terhadap mikroba tersebut.


Hal ini di karenakan makrofag dan neutrofil mempunyai reseptor di permukaannya yang bisa
  1. Mengenali materi intraselular (DNA)
  2. Mengenali endotoxin antigen
  3. Mengenali lipopolisakarida pada antigen atau mikroba yang selanjutnya mengaktifkan aktifitas antimikroba dan sekresi sitokin.


Tahap Respons Imun
  1. Deteksi & mengenali benda asing
  2. Komunikasi dg sel lain untuk berespons
  3. Rekruitmen pemberian & koordinasi respons
  4. Destruksi atau supresi penginvasi Þ antibodi & sitokin
Respons Imun dibagi dua
  1. Respons imun alami nonspesifik
  2. Respons immun specifik


Respon Immun alami non specifik
  1. ada semenjak lahir
  2. tdk mempunyai target tertentu
  3. terjadi dlm beberapa menit atau jam
  4. Reaksi inflamasi


Respons imun Spesifik
  1. spesifik untuk jenis tertentu
  2. respons terhadap paparan I terjadi dalam beberapa hari
  3. paparan berikutnya lebih cepat
Pertahanan badan terhadap antigen
  1. Pertahanan Lapis Pertama
  2. Pertahanan Lapis Kedua
  3. Pertahanan Lapis Ketiga


Pertahanan Pertama sering disebut pula pertahanan Non specifik
  1. Kulit & membran mukosa yang utuh
  2. Kelenjar keringat, sebum, & airmata ® mensekresi zat kimia & bersifat bakterisid
  3. Mukus, silia, tight junction, desmosom, sel keratin & lysozim di lapisan epitel
  4. Rambut pd lubang hidung
  5. Flora normal
Sistem Kekebalan Non-spesifik
  • Dapat mendeteksi adanya benda asing & melindungi badan dari kerusakan yang diakibatkannya, namun tdk dpt mengenali benda asing yang masuk ke dalam tubuh.
Yang termasuk dlm sistem ini:
  1. Reaksi inflamasi/peradangan
  2. Protein antivirus (interferon)
  3. Sel natural killer (NK)
  4. Sistem komplemen


Inflamasi/ Peradangan
  • Merupakan respons lokal badan thd infeksi atau perlukaan
  • Tidak spesifik hanya untuk infeksi mikroba, tetapi respons yg sama juga terjadi pada perlukaan jawaban suhu dingin, panas, atau trauma
  • Pemeran utama: fagosit, a.l: neutrofil, monosit, & makrofag
Tahap inflamasi
  • Masuknya basil ke dalam jaringan
  • Vasodilatasi sistem mikrosirkulasi area yg terinfeksi ®meningkatkan anutan darah (RUBOR/kemerahan & CALOR/panas)
  • Permeabilitas kapiler & venul yang terinfeksi terhadap protein meningkat ® difusi protein & filtrasi air ke interstisial (TUMOR/bengkak & DOLOR/nyeri)
  • Keluarnya neutrofil kemudian monosit dari kapiler & venula ke interstisial
  • Penghancuran basil di jaringan ® fagositosis (respons sistemik: demam)
  • Perbaikan jaringan


Interferon
  • Sel yang terinfeksi virus akan mengeluarkan interferon
  • Interferon mengganggu replikasi virus (antivirus); ‘interfere’
  • Interferon juga memperlambat pembelahan & pertumbuhan sel tumor dgn meningkatkan potensi sel NK & sel T sitotoksik (antikanker)
  • Peran interferon yg lain: meningkatkan kegiatan fagositosis makrofag & merangsang produksi antibodi
Sel Natural Killer (NK)
  • Merusak sel yg terinfeksi virus & sel kanker dengan melisiskan membran sel pd paparan I
  • Kerjanya = sel T sitotoksik, ttp lebih cepat, non-spesifik
  • Bekerja sebelum sel T sitotoksik mnjd lebih banyak & berfungsi
Sistem Komplemen
Sistem ini diaktifkan oleh:
  • paparan rantai karbohidrat yg ada pd permukaan mikroorganisme yg tdk ada pd sel manusia
  • paparan antibodi yang diproduksi spesifik untuk zat asing tertentu oleh Sistem imun adaptif
  • Bekerja sbg ‘komplemen’ dari kerja antibodi
Komplemen yg teraktivasi akan:
  • Berikatan dg basofil & sel mast & menginduksi penglepasan histamin ® reaksi inflamasi
  • Berperan sbg faktor kemotaksis yang meningkatkan fagositosis
  • Berikatan dg permukaan basil & bekerja sbg opsonin (opsonisasi) ® fagositosis
  • Menempel pd membran & membentuk struktur berbentuk tabung yg melubangi membran sel & menyebabkan lisis sel.


Sistem Kekebalan Spesifik
  • Atau Sistem kekebalan adaptif sanggup menghancurkan patogen yang lolos dari Sistem kekebalan non-spesifik.
Sistem Kekebalan Specifik Mencakup:
  1. Kekebalan humoral : produksi antibodi oleh limfosit B (sel plasma)
  2. kekebalan selular : produksi limfosit T yg teraktivasi harus sanggup membedakan sel asing yg harus dirusak dari sel-diri ntigen (molekul besar, kompleks, & unik yg memicu respons imun spesifik jikalau masuk ke dalam tubuh)


Sistem Kekebalan Humoral
  • Antigen (Ag) merangsang sel B bermetamorfosis sel plasma yg memproduksi antibodi (Ab).


  • Ab disekresi ke darah atau limf lokasi sel plasma yg teraktivasi


  • semua Ab akan mencapai darah Þ gamma globulin = imunoglobulin (Ig)


Imunoglobulin (Ig)
Ada 5 kelas:
  1. Ig M : berperan sbg reseptor permukaan sel B & disekresi pd tahap awal respons sel plasma
  2. Ig G : Ig terbanyak di darah, diproduksi jikalau badan berespons thd antigen yg sama , Ig M & IgG berperan jikalau tjd invasi basil & virus serta aktivasi komplemen
  3. Ig E : melindungi badan dr infeksi benalu & mrp perantara pd reaksi alergi; melepaskan histamin dari basofil & sel mast
  4. Ig A : ditemukan pd sekresi sistem perncernaan, pernapasan, & perkemihan (cth: pd airmata & ASI)
  5. Ig D : terdapat pada banyak permukaan sel B; mengenali antigen pd sel B


Sistem Kekebalan Seluler
Limfosit T spesifik untuk kekebalan terhadap infeksi virus & pengaturan pd prosedur kekebalan.
Sel-sel T harus kontak eksklusif dg sasaran
Ada 3 subpopulasi sel T:
  1. sel T sitotoksik
  2. sel T penolong
  3. sel T penekan
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC):
  • Kode human leucocyte-associated antigen (HLA) yg terikat pd permukaan membran sel
  • MHC ini khas pd setiap individu


Surveilens imun: kerjasama sel T sitotoksik, sel NK, makrofag, & interferon


Pembentukan Kekebalan Jangka Panjang (long-term immunity)
  • Pada kontak pertama dg antigen mikroba
  • Respons antibodi terjadi lambat dlm bbrp hari hingga terbentuk sel plasma & akan mencapai puncak dlm bbrp ahad (Respons primer)
  • Dari respon akan membentuk sel memori
  • Jika terjadi kontak dg antigen yg sama, krn adanya sel memori, respons yg terjadi mjd lebih cepat (Respons sekunder)
Gangguan Sistem imun
  • Lack of response (imunodefisiensi) contoh: AIDS, leukemia
  • Incorrect response (peny. autoimun) contoh: DM tipe I, miastenia gravis, multiple sclerosis;penyakit Graves.
  • Overactive response (alergi/ hipersensitivitas) contoh: asma, rhinitis allergic, rx transfusi


Sistem Pertahanan Tubuh
It protects the body from the invasion of the disease IMMUNE SYSTEM
Tiga macam sel darah putih yang berperan dalam respon imun, yaitu:
  1. Limfosit B, disebut sel B lantaran diproduksi di dalam bone marrow (sumsum tulang),
  2. Limfosit T, disebut sel T lantaran diproduksi di dalam kelenjar timus, dan
  3. Makrofag.

Mekanisme kerja antibodi
  1. Limfosit B berperan dalam sintesis antibodi.
  2. Antibodi ini bisa disekresikan atau tetap terikat membran pada permukaan sel B, tergantung kondisinya.
  3. Selama respon imun humoral, antibodi-antibodi mengikat antigen-antigen yang kemudian diingesti (ditelan) dan didegradasi (dipecah/dirusak) oleh makrofag
  4. Limfosit T lebih mempunyai respon dalam imun sel.
  5. Sel-sel T mensintesis reseptor yang mengenali antigen-antigen pada permukaan sel dan memicu lisisnya sel-sel yang mengandung antigen tadi.


PENAHAN BIOLOGI/  Floral tubuh
  • Bakteri asam laktat ialah basil yang memproduksi asam laktat.
  • Beberapa dari basil asam laktat merupakan kelompok dari probiotik yang memperlihatkan manfaat bagi kesehatan manusia.
Peranan basil asam laktat terhadap imunitas insan ialah sebagai berikut:
  1. Meningkatkan respon imun humoral
  2. Meningkatkan respon seluler
  3. Meningkatkan produksi sitokin
  4. Meningkatkan imunitas nonspesifik
Meningkatkan respon imun humoral
  • Bakteri asam laktat (probiotik) akan meningkatkan respon imun humoral.
  • Penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa sel yang memproduksi IgA lebih sedikit pada binatang coba dibandingkan dengan yang mendapat probiotik.
  • Terdapat peningkatan jumlah sel yang memproduksi IgA pada kelompok mencit yang mendapat L. Casei.
  • Peningkatan sekresi IgA cukup untuk mencegah susukan cerna.
  • Pemberian Lactobacillus sanggup meningkatkan produksi sistem imun IgA lokal dan meningkatkan produksi IgA yang disekresi ke limen intestinal memperlihatkan pertahanan mukosa terhadap Salmonella typhimurium.
  • Hal ini mengindikasikan adanya fungsi Lactobacillus sebagai imunoadjuvant dan hanya Lactobacillus yang hidup saja sanggup menstimulasi respon antibodi terhadap antigen spesifik lokal dan sistemik.


Meningkatkan respon seluler
  • Probiotik Lactobacillus GG mempunyai kemampuan unutuk meningkatkan imunitas mukosa intestinal yaitu peningkatan jumlah sel penghasil terutama IgA dan sel penghasil imunoglobin yang lain,
  • Merangsang pelepasan interferon lokal yang memfasilitasi transport antigen serta meningkatkan ambilan antigen oleh Payer`s patches.
Meningkatkan produksi sitokin
  • Streptococcus thermophilus yang secara komersial terdapat di yoghurt meningkatkan produksi sitokin TNF dan IL-6 melalui sel makrofag.
Meningkatkan imunitas nonspesifik
  • Adanya kemampuan memproduksi asam laktat, basil asam laktat bisa meningkatkan dampak fagositosis terhadap patogen.
  • Peran nonspesifik lain dari basil asam laktat yaitu bisa menurunkan reaksi hipersensitifitas terhadap susu sapi .
  • Selain berperan dalam sistem imun manusia, basil asam laktat yang terkandung dalam yoghurt juga bisa mengatasi duduk kasus intoleransi laktosa.
  • Asam laktat yang dihasilkannya akan meningkatkan kegiatan enzim laktase usus halus


SOAL LATIHAN


SOAL

1. Virus HIV sanggup ditularkan melalui . . . .
a. air kencing, sperma, keringat
b. keringat, kontak fisik, darah
c. sperma, darah, keringat
d. cairan vagina, air kencing, ludah
e. cairan vagina, darah, sperma


2. Molekul yang dihasilkan oleh mikroorganisme sehingga dikenali oleh sistem imun disebut  . . .
a. racun
b. serum
c. antibodi
d. antigen
e. protein komplemen


3. Pernyataan yang berkaitan dengan sistem imun berikut ini benar, kecuali . . .
a. Kekebalan badan diatur oleh sistem saraf pusat.
b. Udara yang dihirup melalui hidung sanggup membawa kuman penyakit.
c. Antibodi tidak selalu sanggup menonaktifkan virus yang masuk.
d. Imunisasi merupakan cara memperoleh kekebalan secara aktif.
e. Seiring dengan bertambahnya waktu infeksi HIV, sistem kekebalan badan semakin berkurang.


4. AIDS disebabkan menurunnya jumlah sel tertentu dalam sistem imun, yaitu . . . .
a. se-T
b. sel-B
c. sel NK (pembuluh alami)
d. haemoglobin
e. antigen


5. Manakah pernyataan berikut ini yang benar?
a. Antibodi tertentu sanggup mengenali beberapa kuman penyakit.
b. Virus HIV sanggup menyerang semua sel dalam badan manusia.
c. Antibodi bekerja spesifik untuk antigen tertentu saja.
d. Makrofag hanya berada di dalam organ tertentu saja.
e. Kuman penyakit hanya sanggup dibunuh oleh makrofag.


6. Autoimunitas berbahaya lantaran ....
a. sel limfosit tidak bereaksi terhadap antigen
b. sel fagosit menyerang sel-sel tubuh
c. sel limfosit rusak oleh virus atau bakteri
d. sel limfosit tidak sanggup menghasilkan antibodi
e. sel limfosit menyerang sel-sel tubuh


7. HIV sangat berbahaya dan sanggup menyebabkan janjkematian lantaran ....
a. sanggup merusak jaringan tubuh
b. menyerang sel-sel limfosit
c. sanggup ditularkan melalui kontak cairan tubuh
d. menurunkan kekebalan badan sehingga memudahkan infeksi penyakit lain
e. merusak antibodi tubuh


8. Pada autoimunitas ....
a. sel limfosit diserang oleh virus
b. sistem kekebalan badan tidak sanggup membedakan sel badan dan patogen
c. sel limfosit menyerang mikroba patogen
d. sistem kekebalan badan terbentuk sesudah terjadi infeksi
e. sistem kekebalan tidak sanggup mengenali mikroba patogen


9. Pada AIDS, sel yang diserang oleh virus HIV ialah ....
a. saraf
b. otot
c. epitel
d. limfosit
e. darah merah


10. Kekebalan badan yang didapatkan dari penyuntikan basil yang dilemahkan disebut ....
a. kekebalan badan aktif alami
b. kekebalan badan aktif buatan
c. kekebalan badan dasar
d. kekebalan badan pasif
e. semua jawaban benar


11. Imunisasi terhadap campak atau polio termasuk ....
a. kekebalan badan aktif alami
b. kekebalan badan aktif buatan
c. kekebalan badan pasif
d. pertahanan badan eksternal
e. pertahanan badan internal


12. Naiknya suhu badan ketika demam bertujuan ....
a. mempercepat perkembangbiakan bakteri
b. mempercepat metabolisme
c. mempercepat kerja sel fagosit
d. jawaban b dan c benar
e. jawaban a, b, dan c benar


13. Demam yang terlalu tinggi membahayakan badan lantaran ....
a. metabolisme terlalu cepat
b. melemahkan virus dan bakteri
c. melemahkan sel fagosit
d. merusak jaringan saraf
e. merusak sel otot


14. Sistem kekebalan badan humoral bekerja menghancurkan ....
a. patogen di dalam sel tubuh
b. patogen di luar sel tubuh
c. antigen di luar sel tubuh
d. jawaban b dan c benar
e. jawaban a, b, dan c benar


15. Sel limfosit terbentuk dari ....
a. mastosit (mast cell)
b. sel darah putih
c. sel darah merah
d. sel monosit
e. sel neutrofit


16. Makrofag berasal dari sel darah putih jenis ....
a. limfosit
b. basofil
c. neutrofil
d. monosit
e. eosinofit


17. Molekul yang dikenali limfosit sebagai zat asing dan memicu sistem kekebalan badan disebut ....
a. interleukin
b. antibodi
c. immunoglobulin
d. antigen
e. histamin

18. Ketika antigen dicampurkan pada serum yang mengandung antibodi yang terjadi ialah ....
a. tidak terjadi apa-apa
b. antibodi menolak antigen
c. antibodi berikatan dengan antigen
d. antigen tidak bercampur dengan serum
e. antibodi terpisah dari serum


19. Penyuntikan antibodi yang dihasilkan oleh organisme lain ke dalam badan pasien, ialah bentuk kekebalan ....
a. aktif
b. pasif
c. tubuh
d. sel
e. intrasel


20. Sebagian besar imunoglobulin yang dihasilkan badan termasuk dalam kelas ....
a. IgM dan IgB
b. IgA dan IgG
c. IgM dan IgG
d. IgD dan IgA
e. IgM dan IgD


21. Sel limfosit B dimatangkan di ....
a. kelenjar thymus
b. sumsum tulang
c. otak
d. nodus limfa
e. darah

22. Sel B dan sel T ialah ....
a. limfosit
b. sel pembunuh
c. fagosit
d. makrofag
e. sel darah merah


23. Dalam reaksi alergi, IgE ....
a. menempel pada sel patogen dan menandainya untuk kemudian dilumpuhkan
b. menciptakan lubang pada membran sel patogen
c. berikatan pada permukaan mastosit, dan menginduksinya untuk menghasilkan histamin
d. memicu limfosit untuk menghasilkan antigen
e. memicu sekresi antibodi ke dalam susukan pencernaan dan susukan pernapasan


24. Berikut ini yang termasuk pertahanan pada permukaan badan ialah ....
a. kulit dan membran mukosa
b. air mata dan air liur
c. basil tanaman normal tubuh
d. urine
e. semua jawaban benar


25. Bakteri yang masuk ke dalam badan dihancurkan oleh ....
a. IgA
b. Sel T pembantu
c. Antibiotik
d. Fagosit
e. Histamin

26. Lapisan pertahanan badan kedua ialah ....
a. sistem sirkulasi
b. sistem limfatik
c. sistem respirasi
d. sistem integumen
e. sistem digest


27. Limfosit yang matang di sumsum tulang ialah ....
a. Limfosit T
b. Limfosit B
c. Limfosit E
d. Limfosit M
e. Limfosit D


28. Molekul yang mengaktifkan limfosit B untuk mengikat antigen ialah ....
a. imunoglobulin                      
b. interleukin
c. antibodi                               
d. antihistamin
c. interferon


29. Dalam insiden alergi, zat yang dikeluarkan sel mast ialah ....
a. antibodi                               
b. imunoglobulin
c. antihistamin                          
d. antibodi

30. Kekebalan yang timbul lantaran adanya rangsangan timbulnya kekebalan dalam badan disebut ....
a. kekebalan pasif                
b. imunisasi
c. kekebalan aktif               
d. vaksinasi
e. imunitas


31. Immunoglobulin yang berperan dalam insiden alergi ialah ....
a. Ig E                               
b. Ig M
c. Ig A                              
d. Ig G
e. Ig D


32. Jika badan terjangkit basil pneumonia maka immunoglobulin yang berperan ialah ....
a. Ig A dan Ig M
b. Ig M dan Ig E
c. Ig G dan Ig A
d. Ig M dan Ig G
e. Ig A dan Ig E


33. Benda asing yang masuk ke dalam badan disebut ....
a. gen                                   
b. histamin
c. antigen                             
d. infeksi
e. alergi


34. Protein antibodi disebut dengan ....
a. immunoglobulin                                  
b. antigen                                               
c. histamine
d. limfa
e. plasma


35. Imunoglobulin yang pertama kali akan diproduksi jikalau terjadi respon imun humoral ialah ....
a. Ig A                              
b. Ig M                             
c. Ig D
d. Ig E
e. Ig G


36. Antibodi dihasilkan oleh ....
a. limfosit T                         
b. limfosit B                        
c. mast sel
d. kelenjar limfa
e. makrofag


37. Limfosit T menjadi aktif sesudah berada di ....
a. sumsum tulang
b. timus
c. kelenjar limfa
d. pembuluh darah
e. jaringan


38. Molekul yang berperan dalam respon imun imunoral ialah ....
a. histamine                             
b. antihistamin                         
c. mast sel
d. kelenjar limfa
e. makrofag


39. Berikut ini yang termasuk dalam komponen sistem imun, kecuali ....
a. makrofag                        
b. limfosit                            
c. sel pengenal antigen
d. reseptor sel
e. alergen


40. Pada masalah imunodefisiensi, orang yang menderita mengalami kerusakan . . . .
A. monosit                               
B. limfosit                                
C. sel B
D. sel T
E. sel B dan sel T


41. Kemampuan badan untuk melawan semua jenis benda asing yang masuk ke dalam badan disebut ….
a. alergi                                  
b. imunitas                             
c. vaksinasi
d. imunisasi
e. infeksi


42. Kamu tentu pernah diberi vaksinasi DPT semoga tidak terjangkit . . . .
A. penyakit TBC
B. penyakit difteri
C. kolera dan disentri
D. difteri, pertusis, dan tetanus
E. disentri, pertusis dan tetanus


43. Vaksinasi yang dilakukan secara oral, di antaranya vaksinasi . . . .
A. BCG
B. Cacar
C. Polio
D. DPT
E. Anthraks


44. Bayi akan mempunyai kekebalan yang ditransfer dari ibunya melalui ASI. Imunisasi menyerupai ini dikategorikan sebagai . . . .
A. Imunisasi aktif
B. Imunisasi pasif
C. Imunisasi alami
D. Imunisasi aktif alami
E. Imunisasi pasif alami


45. Jika digigit anjing, segeralah ke dokter untuk mendapat kekebalan terhadap penyakit rabies. Dokter akan memperlihatkan suntikan . . . .
A. serum kuda
B. serum anjing
C. serum sapi
D. antibodi kuda
E. antibodi Anjing


46. Berikut ini istilah-istilah yang berafiliasi dengan imunitas.
1. Makrofag              4. Betalysin                      7. Sel Kupffer
2. Sel B                     5. Lysozom                     8. Sel Mikroglial
3. Sel T                     6. Interferon
Seorang perokok dengan sadar akan memasukkan racun rokok ke dalam paru-parunya. Padahal beliau telah mengancam kekuatan imunitas paruparu yang mengandalkan . . . sebagai penghancur racun rokok tersebut.
A. 1                           
B. 4                          
C. 6
D. 7
E. 8


47.  Berikut ini istilah-istilah yang berafiliasi dengan imunitas.
1. Makrofag              4. Betalysin                      7. Sel Kupffer
2. Sel B                     5. Lysozom                     8. Sel Mikroglial
3. Sel T                     6. Interferon
Tubuh mempunyai keistimewaan, justru ketika virus melaksanakan infeksi ke dalam sel. Tubuh segera membentuk zat yang bermanfaat untuk pertahanan tubuh. Zat tersebut ialah . . . .
A. 8                           
B. 7                          
C. 6
D. 5
E. 4


48. Berikut ini istilah-istilah yang berafiliasi dengan imunitas.
1. Makrofag              4. Betalysin                      7. Sel Kupffer
2. Sel B                     5. Lysozom                     8. Sel Mikroglial
3. Sel T                     6. Interferon
Banyak basil menjadi patogen ketika sedang melaksanakan sporulasi. Tubuh akan bereaksi terhadap ancaman ini dengan memproduksi . . . .
A. 1                          
B. 2                          
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5


48. Proses keluarnya virus dari dalam sel terinfeksi dengan merusak dinding sel disebut . . . .
a. ektoplasma
b. eksositosis
c. plasmolisis
d. lisis
e. replikasi


50. Reaksi imunisasi ketika virus atau basil menginfeksi tubuh, yaitu terjadinya reaksi antara . . . .
A. Antibodi – Imunoglobulin                            
B. Antibodi – Antigen                                       
C. Antigen – Imunogen
D. Limfosit – Virus
E. Leukosit – Bakteri

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